Tupac Shakur, His Social Legacy (Blog Post 2)


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Tupac Shakur, born Lesane Parish Crooks in June 1971, more famously known as 2Pac, was a prominent rapper during the 1990s and is still considered to be one of the most influential hip-hop artists of all time. Until his untimely death in 1996 at the age of 25, Tupac used his musical talent, lyrical skills, and raw expression, to create top-selling albums such as Me Against the World, and All Eyez on Me. The former is widely regarded as being his greatest work during his career. Singles such as California Love and Hit ‘Em Up, and Ghetto Gospel, are some of his most popular tracks. Tupac also collaborated with other giants of the hip-hop industry such as The Notorious B.I.G or Biggie, Dr. Dre, Eminem, and Snoop Dogg.

Tupac’s legacy has been a highly influential one. His death from a drive by shooting at a young age sent shockwaves throughout the hip-hop and music industry. It was a reminder that to many that hip-hop was incredibly real and that the music was a reflection of raw emotion. However, Tupac was also known for his devilish wit that allowed him to temporarily move away from his deeper self. Today, Tupac’s legacy of quality rapping continues to influence a vast number of rappers and hip-hop artists such as Eminem today.

The messages in Tupac’s songs show a lot about the culture and the struggles faced as a discriminated minority in America. His music resonates with many young people and gives strength to those who are ostracised. His music is an outlet for many youths experiencing similar hardships. He inspires new artists to create meaningful music, which is an important part of his legacy.

‘Cause I ain’t a crook, despite how I look’

–  2Pac, Young Black Male

The impact that Tupac and his music have on society is large. A unique and fundamental aspect of hip-hop is that it does not aim to gloss reality. The lyrics reflect real life. It is often gritty and very confrontational and these are unique qualities of hip-hop. Those who understand the culture that Tupac was a part of can empathise and enjoy the music. At the same time, many who are far from his world, may find his music to be intimidating. Hip-hop is real, and is a direct link to the grittiness of urban life.

Tupac’s music also allows others to share their thoughts and emotions. Using music as a mode of expression is incredibly effective. Tupac’s influence on musical expression is very important. His lyrics refer to racism, cultural discrimination, injustice, social class, and social conflict. These issues are still very much relevant in the world today.

“Can barely walk the city streets

Without a cop harassing me, searching me”

– 2Pac Trapped

Me Against the World (1995) is considered to be 2Pac’s magnum opum

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Bringing a City Together and the Link of Music:

There are many predominately popular elements in life which contribute to the uniting of a society or community. Music has been known to be one of these elements as it has the ability to bring people together in celebration, in remembrance and in all aspects in which life represents. Tupac Amaru Shakur (hereinafter referred to as “Tupac”) was a prominent rapper, who based his music around life experiences, tragedy, hardships and successes whose music was so popular that it sold over 75 million records worldwide (Hindustan Times 16 June 2012). Tupac’s music brought many people, of different cultures together, particularly whereby in his music he would speak about racism such as Changes (1994) which has allowed many people to understand the importance of cultural unity. Tupac’s music and his expression of life raised awareness of struggles faced within society  and in doing so has brought many cultures together, particularly in respect of acknowledging the African-American culture and how they were discriminated against. Music has been known as an underlying principle which brings people together, such as in the prominence of Kosovo whereby after years of conflict, songs were sang in hope for a better life and future which is similar to the message set out by Tupac (Besa 2005).


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The messages of freedom, change, prosperity and equality as shown through the songs Dear Mama, Changes, and Brenda’s Got a Baby which in particular depict issues that tend to occur within low socio-economic societies. Through his music, Tupac has brought cultures together by educating the world and his straight forward lyrics highlight the issues which he faced growing up in a poor economic area. Tupac has brought the world together through his message and music causing a casual link between his followers as it would with people who belong to the same city. Michael De Certeau outlined the features of urban life which is depicted in particular cities and states that particular aspects determine the particular dynamics of that city and its sociological culture. De Certeau through his works, determined that the functionality of a city, the people who are involved in the city, are what turn an area into a city. Similarly, it is those who engage with and interpret the music of Tupac which gives his music sociological and cultural meaning. Tupac’s messages which were embedded through his lyrics contributed to the culture and functionality of society bringing life to a city of people who followed him during his time.

Furthermore, Tupac’s music and the way in which it was performed outlined messages of history. This exceedingly exuberant popular cultural phenomenon is also a basis for cultural traffic which still lives on post-mortem. According to David Byrne’s theory, Tupac’s music caused a movement in culture as it brought together different people from different cultures who have their own different identities yet have embraced Tupac’s own rap culture through his musical influence. Tupac followed the patterns of the successful rap group NWA in creating his music which is how, as argued by sociologist Theodore Adorno, revolutionary. Tupac’s music has, and continues to be an indication of substantial cultural traffic which influences, educates, and embraces the sociological significance of culture and urbanism.

Tupac’s image on a building in Miami

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Tupac’s Influence on the Sociological Aspects of Life:

One of the issues in the modern society is the sense of belonging. or lack thereof. Many people seek to be recognised and to feel accepted in the society. Therefore, any segregation brings unsettlement in society. The social evils such as racism were among the issues which were of importance to the musician. One of his songs which received overwhelming accolade and much hearing both during and after his life was the song Changes. This song focused on addressing the topic of poverty and racism in the streets. Tupac argued that these evils will never change and they will always remain. Tupac has played an integral role in educating and inspiring youths to take a stand against oppression and build a stronger society (Burwell & Lenters 2015).

One of the fundamental issues addressed by Tupac related especially to the immediate society in which he lived. During this time, American society was marred by vices such as racism, brutality, inequality and segregation of the minority. He used most of his songs to castigate and address these issues. The existing culture between the minority and the whites was diverse and separate from one another. However, Tupac bridged this gap by seeking to demonstrate the sense of rights and belonging to the minority in the country (Byrne 2012).

Music has been deemed as one of the tools of communicating and addressing issues within the community. The importance of music enables people to express their feelings and allow them to be heard. This explains why the works of Tupac have remained of importance and great influence especially to the American society even after his death. The themes which were integrated by Tupac in his work have remained of significance today, with most people listening to his music to gain a greater understanding of urbanism and its faults (De Certeau 1999). For example, his quest for recognition of the minority and expression of street life has remained as a real and confronting issue.


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Tupac’s Version on the Expression of Life:

Having been brought up by a mother who was a leader of the Black Panthers Movement, Tupac was raised in an environment where social tensions became a central factor in his upbringing. Influenced by the political visuals shown through graffiti, which were used to express social discontent (Young 2013), Tupac became highly conscious at a young age. His prominence as a political artist had been pre-determined because of his affiliation with the Black Panthers, who became notorious as the radical manifestation of the Civil rights Movement. He raps in his song, Thug’s Mansion, “how can I be peaceful? I’m coming from the bottom; watch my daddy scream peace while the other man shot him.” In another song, he writes “how can I feel guilty after all the things they did to me?” In both cases, he addresses the victimised mentality of a community that has been subject to a historical narrative that is fraught with racial oppression and degradation. For what purpose should the community be apologetic or peaceful in their retaliation for hundreds of years of oppression? This was the mentality held by the Black Panthers movement, which appealed to those who found the approach of Dr Martin Luther King as having been ‘soft’. Tupac’s influence spanned not only to those who appreciated his musical prowess, but to those who were not only politically like-minded, but also those who were met with the realities that he expressed through his songs.

In a famous interview, Tupac was recorded to have stated “I’m not saying I’m gonna change the world, but I guarantee that I will spark the brain, that will change the world.” Tupac’s influence in the hip-hop community, and arguably throughout the global community, was not stemmed primarily through his production of music. In the music industry, there are countless of artists who break records but the underlying distinction that sets Tupac from his contemporaries, as well those who supersede him, is his prioritisation of social awareness in his music. Irrespective of his success, or where his fame would take him, his affinity to the streets and its struggles became his home (Heller 1995).

“I’m tired of being poor and even worse, I’m black; my stomach hurts, so I’m looking for a purse to snatch”

– Tupac Shakur

The song entitled Changes is regarded as one of the most important pieces of music from the hip-hop genre. The entire piece is a composition of racial politics, idealism and reality. In and of itself, the piece induces a dichotomy of the African-American as being, on the one hand, victims of an institutionalised form of oppression, though at the other hand, contemporary aggressors of social cohesion through the gangster persona. He reconciles the dichotomy through the idea that the aggressors are merely a product of a continuous chain of generational discrimination. The circumstances that were induced upon the African Americans, that being of inadequate welfare and poverty, by the system is what causes the crimes, like theft, to occur, as implied when he says “I ain’t never did a crime I ain’t have to do”.


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Tupac Shakur, more commonly known as 2Pac, was an internationally influential hip-hop artist. Due to his legacy and through his music, Tupac was able to express his emotions and portray his talent and lyrical skills. His music mirrored his culture, real life experiences, and the struggles he experienced as being a part of a discriminated group in America. Using his music as a platform has strengthened individuals that were facing similar situations as his lyrics referred to injustices that continue to occur today in everyday life. Through his music, Tupac was able to send a message to a wide audience in order to educate them about African American discrimination in America.

Tupac was able to create a link between the people that listen to his music and provided knowledge to those who were unfamiliar with hip-hop. His music also had a connection between culture and history and he successfully portrayed the reality of urban life in his songs. Tupac had a significant impact on sociological aspects of life by uniting different cultures and influencing many young artists to express their emotions and thoughts through music. Despite the negative treatment he received from members of society as both a young black man and during his career as a hip-hop artist, Tupac shaped the minds of many people with his music. He expressed himself through the media of music in order to get his messages across to a broad community and has a large influence on urban society.

Group Members:

Dania Fayza   17265145

Ai Ling Sim   18468137

Siham Luqman   18094823

Ahmed Abdul Rahman   17810045

Ammar Esvandiar Bobsaid   18078853


How Tupac’s Life and Lyrics Raise Awareness of Struggles within society for adolescents http://smrecek.weebly.com/

Besa Luzha, “Music Brings People Together in Postwar Josovo” August 1, 2005. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0255761405052411

Burwell, C., & Lenters, K. (2015). Word on the street: Investigating linguistic landscapes with urban Canadian youth. Pedagogies: An International Journal, 10(3), pp. 201-221.

Byrne, D 2012, How music works, San Francisco, McSweeney, California.

De Certeau, M 1999, Walking in the city. 2nd ed. In: During S (ed.), The Cultural studies reader, Routledge, London, pp. 126–133.

Heller, A 1995, ‘Where are we at home?’, Thesis Eleven Journal, no. 41, pp. 1 – 18.

Young, A 2013, Street Art, Public City, Taylor and Francis, Florence.


Michael Jackson’s Global Influence

Michael Jackson Performs At Super Bowl XXVII Halftime Show - January 31, 1993

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The aim of this post is to discuss music and its significant role in culture, the bandwagon effect which is described as a cultural phenomenon and Jeffery Alexander’s six steps to analysing performance and how it relates to culture. The post will further discuss how music talent shows depict the relationship between music and culture, and how music has been used to move society towards modernity.

Culture is the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people whom share similar ideas, customs, social behaviours, cuisine, art and music (Herndon and McLeod, 1980).

“Without music, life would be a mistake (Friedrich Nietzsche)” (Trohidis et al., 2008).

Music has been acknowledged as part of culture for centuries. Music is a human structured sound in which its aspects vary from culture to culture. It has been viewed as a fundamental aspect of human culture as it has been used for celebrations, enjoyment, dance, and in many other daily activities (Shah, 2015). Many great philosophers studied music from a harmonic point of view, Arthur Schopenhauer stated that “the inexpressible depth of music, so easy to understand and yet so inexplicable, is due to the fact that it reproduces all the emotions of our innermost being, but entirely without reality and remote from its pain…music expresses only the quintessence of life and its events, never these themselves.” (Shah, 2015).

“My goal in life is to give to the world what I was lucky to receive; The ecstasy of the divine through my music and dance.” – Michael Jackson 

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The Bandwagon Effect:

Culture is defined in many different ways, dependent upon what the view of culture is to a particular group or individual. However, one of the most frequently relied upon definitions under the study of sociology is that culture is essentially what humans produce and is considered to be ordinary (Williams, 1989, p.3). The most symbolic forms of culture are those regularly practiced traditions which make an impact on multiple people across the world, being the bandwagon effect. The bandwagon effect is described to be a cultural phenomenon whereby particular groups or individuals begin to express their behavior in a certain way due to the fact that they see others behaving in such a way. A clear demonstration of the bandwagon effect is shown through the artistic works of Michael Jackson (herein referred to as “Jackson”), who began a cultural phenomenon through his dance and music.

Billie Jean at school talent show

One of the most distinct moments during Jackson’s career was on or about 25 March 1983 when he first had performed the moonwalk on stage to the song Billie Jean. The moonwalk was the name given to a dance move whereby Jackson walks backwards whilst assuming the position of walking forwards. The moonwalk became a culture of its own, followed by the glove and hat which he would wear, which became a cultural phenomenon in almost every region around the world and amongst almost each and every age group. Jackson’s work conducted as an artist in the music industry shows a clear indication, through a sociological perspective that culture is common as well as mimetic given the impact it can have across a global domain (Billboard, 2009).Music has been playing a significant role in our society as well as being an influential tool. For instant, Michael Jackson’s music has influenced thousands of people from many different backgrounds and cultures. He is one of the most recognisable individuals on this planet and possibly the most influential artist of the 20th century. He was acknowledged for his extraordinary talent and passion for music from such a young age (Stevens, 2010).

Despite different ethnic backgrounds, languages, different sociological and cultural aspects Michael Jackson’s music, entertainment and legacy have had a huge influence on cultures from all around the world. He was able to relate his music to many different cultures, which only proves the power of music (Stevens, 2010).

Michael Jackson – Black or White 1991 Music Video


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Sociologist, Jeffrey Alexander rethought the theory of culture whereby he labelled it to be a an independent variable for analysis under sociology (Alexander and Smith, 2003). In making this determination, Alexander devised six steps which he believes could assist in understanding how culture is performed. In order to determine the cultural impact which Jackson has created, Alexander’s six steps to analysing performance will be used to understand the meaning of Jackson’s short film titled “Black or White” (Bottrell & Jackson, 1991).


The actors in Black or White are Jackson as himself, Macualay Culkin playing a young boy, George Wendt playing a father, Tess Harper playing a mother, African hunters, traditional Thai Dancers, native Americans, Indian and Russian dancers, Tyra Banks and other actors. The actors featured in this short film all represent different cultural groups coming together and dancing to the same song, showing a strong link between music and culture.

Collective Representations:

One of the main representations depicted in the short film which shows specificities in communication is that of the morphing shown towards the end of the short film. This is whereby different actors such as Tyra Banks are shown dancing and laughing to Jackson’s music and each actor who were mixed in race morphed into the next actor i.e. from a black skinned actor to a white skinned actor. This particularly shows how Jackson’s music connects all different types of ethnicities.

Means of Symbolic Production

Different types of edifices in the world are shown throughout the short film such as the Sphinx, The Parthenon, the Taj Mahal, the Eiffel Tower and other cultural structures which shows the unity of different cultures incorporated to strengthen the message the music wants to bring to relate to different groups of individuals which strengthens the sense of a bandwagon effect.


The scene and message which Jackson portrays through his short film is believable given that the lyrics unify different cultures particularly in the chorus of the song which state “It don’t matter if you’re black or white”.

Social Power

Jackson is the powerful figure in the short film. The power in Jackson’s character is shown particularly when he is walking through the streets expressing rage at signs portraying racism such as ‘KKK’. The source of the power shown by Jackson is the way in which he reaches out to all different types of cultural groups which is a message he portrays throughout the entire video in order to move towards modernity (i.e. acceptance of all cultures and sharing cultural aspects) as discussed by sociologist Ziggy Bauman.


The proposed audience of this short film is all ages, all cultures and all groups of people, which clearly shows why Jackson has, through his music caused a bandwagon effect which is important given that different people interact with music on different levels (Byrne, 2012).

Michael posing with backup dancers from the Black or White music video.

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Music and Culture:

Music and culture have been embedded in our society for a long time. The terms music and culture to some context are inseparable in regards to definition as they are conjoined in how they affect the social lives of the human beings. The culture of a point in time is reflected in the extent at which the popularity of the music is for that particular point in time. It is through the study of music and culture that we can fathom the fingerprints of a certain generation in the lyrics and the sound of that particular time. In the present times, our culture is changing at a faster rate than it did before due to the reflection of music styles that are being reused and new styles being developed. Music and culture have had enormous impacts on our society, and this post highlights on how it has impacted on the society morally, politically, and emotionally.

Even though music and culture are in constant change with time, there are places and times where the cultural practices and music have remained largely the same for over hundreds of years. One such place is Europe during the classical period whereby their music and cultural practices had remained quite constant and are internationally known as classical music. Morality is referred to as the beliefs a society have as to what is right as opposed to what is wrong (Garfias, 2004). Music has a significant impact on the morals of the society as it affects the cultural ways. Some effects are positive whilst others are negative. The realm of hip-hop and rap music, for instance, have been associated and stereotyped to relate to gang members. This is a vast majority of hip hop tracks have lyrics depicting the glorification of violence, drugs, and sex (Garfias, 2004). Although it is a way of artistry, it can offend and provide a negative influence on some members of society. On the other hand, some music genres have been associated with the aristocratic or ‘general’ classes of society. Pop music would appeal to the general population whereas opera would appeal to fans of drama, strong emotion, and historical themes.

“The meaning of life is contained in every expression of life. It is present in the infinity of forms and the phenomena that exist in all of creation.” – Michael Jackson

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Music has an impact in everyday life and can affect an individual’s decisions and can spark musical interest as a profession or hobby. Some people attend music school where they learn how to be experts in the crafting and composition of music. Most people have used the platform of producing music and made it their full-time jobs which in turn allow them to earn a living. Prominent musicians have elevated their social status and have altered not only their lifestyles but others as well (Borg & Russo, 2005).

More so, music and culture had adverse effects on the emotions of people. Music is believed to have profound effects on behaviour, spirit, and mind. It can help in educating individuals in society through the messages that are passed through lyrics (Wixom, 2013). Good music which is pleasant to the ear can help soothe the soul. The most important aspect of music is that it acts as a bridge to narrow the gap there is between languages and cultures. It is used as a means of finding the compatibility within one society and also link them well with others. Music is a common denominator, and all cultures in the society have it and share it. Music makes the community feel and respond in a certain way. It also sets the moods within the society by creating good atmospheres (Wixom, 2013). Since humans are behavioural beings, they are hence directly affected by the way they feel. This one example is among many other reasons as to why people choose a certain genre of music whilst undertaking various activities.

Michael’s exposure through MTV influenced a younger generation to express themselves through music.

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Jackson’s Influence on Shaping Culture:

Inclusiveness and acceptance in society is a concept that many individuals still fail in both practice and belief in present times. Due to prejudice and discrimination, millions of people in the world struggle to feel like they are a respected or accepted. Michael Jackson’s legacy has presented itself as a socially inclusive and creative one. Society is a direct product of human activity. Due to the strong influence of conformity through mass participation, society can confront an individual objectively (Berger 1967). This idea can be intimidating to many individuals. Society is very powerful and a single person who chooses to live an alternative lifestyle could face very serious consequences in different countries around the world. Subsequently, a unique performer such as Michael Jackson would dissolve some prejudice held towards those who express themselves differently than the societal norm. His eccentric and artistic self has inspired many others to push creativity to new dimensions. Due to this, many cultural and conforming taboos in societies were gradually overlooked and or accepted.

His music and performances sparked a diverse range of impersonators and tribute artists globally. Many people were brought together through Jackson’s songs and impersonators who appeared on talent shows are an example of that. On talent shows throughout the world, Michael Jackson’s songs and dance routines have appeared many times. When the performer steps on the stage dressed as Michael, the audience usually responds with warmth at the sight of familiarity. In the two videos below, it is clear that people of very different backgrounds, ages, and races, feel acceptance and pride through his music and dance:

Indonesia’s Got Talent

Britain’s Got Talent

Turkey’s Got Talent

Specific examples of inclusivity and acceptance are especially evident in his Super Bowl half time performance in 1993. The most notable segment was towards the end of his show, where Heal the World not only included the world through its lyrics, but through the physical performance itself. The racially diverse range of many backing singers and dancers of different ages created a blatant message that everyone should be respected within society. No one should be excluded, and everyone should feel accepted.

Jackson’s famous songs often contain lyrics that are based on the events that were nonconforming to the standards of mainstream music during the 80s/90s. Billie Jean described the story of a woman who claimed that she had a child with him but he denies the allegations. The lyrics are not explicit, but they provoke an image of promiscuity and taboo. The lyrics of Bad also glamorises the image of rebellious behaviour and anarchy. The music video for Remember the Time depicts infidelity and temptation. Such content reflected the taboos of society, and in a subconscious way, allowed individuals to face such events in the open. Michael Jackson has inspired many people to be more accepting of the non conforming people and ways of society, and many individuals feel a sense of belonging through him.

Michael at the 1993 Super Bowl halftime show.

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How Music Shapes Modernity:

Modernity is a multifaceted concept that comprises a number of factors in relation to society. Modernity cannot be subjected to just one era of time, since it is a continuous venture for advancement. All societies in history, from ancient to present, are all common in that at each stage in time, the people of those times believed that they were modern. This includes the fields of politics, science and cultural practices, like music.

The intended purpose of music has always been to evoke emotion. The utilisation of instruments, coupled with the synchronisation of lyrics to a beat or melody, induces an emotional state that is intended by the artist. When the national anthem is played, the intended effect is to appeal to the nation’s sense of patriotism and national pride. Likewise when Michael Jackson’s Black or White is played on the radio, the intended effect is to not only have fun dancing to the song but also to grasp the message behind the lyrics. The evocation of thought and emotion through the use of music is intended to not only appeal towards the masses through one specific medium, but also to relate to the masses on a platform that accessible to everyone.

Music’s appeal to self identity and individualism is what makes it an essential tool in the move towards modernity. On the one hand, it promotes the basis for individualism though at the same time, it forces a collective identity to be a product of the same source (Hesmondhalgh, 2013). It should not be misconstrued that music can only contribute to everyday culture, and simultaneously have no bearing on the affairs of world politics. Music is flexible in its usefulness and can be used in any cause, be it to introduce a toddler to the world of knowledge or to protest against an unjust government in a manner that is rhythmic and catchy.

Xscape album cover 2014.

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To summarise, when speaking of the progression of culture, it would be a mistake to overlook the impact of music in the everlasting progression towards modernity. For centuries, music has been used as a source of expression. Whether it be utilised as means of protest, as seen through the humble origins of Hip Hop and Rap, or as a means to create iconic trends and status, as seen through many examples including the King of Pop, Michael Jackson, music plays a significant role in modernity. The impact of iconic figures like the aforementioned artist on society is arguably pivotal due to their ability to express and shape perceptions in a way that welcomes people from different walks of life. In a stadium where one figure can influence the lives of millions through the words he melodiously delivers, where his/her fashion sense are readily accepted as the “in thing”, where their antics can arguably contribute to modern culture, the role of music and musical artists on modernity is undeniable.

Music and culture have an intertwined connection in which influences our society. Music has an important factor in our societies as it is used for enjoyment, celebrations and many other aspects of our lives. the power of music and culture were depicted through the legacy of Michael Jackson as he was able to influence people from various cultures. the objectives of our piece were to explore the bandwagon effect which is explained as a cultural phenomenon, the relationship between music and culture, Jeffery alexander’s six steps of analysing performance and its association with culture, music talent shows and how music was used as a tool to moving towards modernity.


Group members:

Dania Fayza   17265145

Ai Ling Sim   18468137

Siham Luqman   18094823

Ahmed Abdul Rahman   17810045

Ammar Esvandiar Bobsaid   18078853



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Billboard, (2009), accessed 7 February 2009, <http://www.billboard.com/articles/news/268216/michael-jackson-remains-a-global-phenomenon>

Bottrell, B and Jackson, M “Black or White” released on 11 November 1991, Epic Records.

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Byrne, D 2012, Creation in reverse, in David Byrne (ed.), ‘How music works’, San Francisco, McSweeneys.

Garfias, R 2004, “Music: the cultural context,” Senri Ethnological Reports 47, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka.

Hesmondhalgh, D 2013, Why Music Matters, Wiley.

Herndon, M and McLeod, N, 1981, Music as culture, Norwood.

Shah, V 2013, The Role of Music in Human Culture, Thought Economics. Np, Mar.

Stevens, H 2010, Michael Jackson’s Unparalleled Influence, The Atlantic24.

Trohidis, K, Tsoumakas, G, Kalliris, G, and Vlahavas, IP, 2008, September, Multi-Label Classification of Music into Emotions. In ISMIR (Vol. 8, pp. 325-330).

Williams, R 1989, Resources of Hope: Culture, Democracy, Socialism, London: Verso.

Wixom, RM 2013, The Influence of Music, viewed online https://www.lds.org/youth/article/the-influence-of-music?lang=eng

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